Honourable and personal residential letting experts

There are a number of legal obligations and expectations on landlords when renting properties; this page provides a summary of the key safety and compliance things you need to know, to make sure you don’t slip up!

Our Owner Compliance Checklist may help you assess what you already know.

Many issues are not explicit legal requirements, but considered good practice. It could be that you follow none of the good practice, or even comply with the Law, with no apparent problem. The risk is that if there is a claim against you, or you are prosecuted, or someone gets injured, then you would have almost no defence if you failed to follow established good practice, particularly as most items can be addressed at very low cost.

It is also likely that any insurance policy on your property will stipulate compliance with best practice, or make specific requirements, without which the insurer may not settle any claim.

For most items we have secured competitive rates from trusted contractors, which means there should be no extra cost to you when we arrange the work rather than you using your own contractors.

Gas & Oil

Gas Safety Report Certificate

Owners are legally responsible for ensuring a gas safety check is carried out annually in their rental properties by a Gas Safe Registered engineer. You must ensure a copy is issued to each existing resident within 28 days of the check being completed and a copy is issued to any new residents before they move in.

The rules are you should keep a record of the safety check for two years – however we advise keeping all certificates for the length of the tenancy, in case eviction is needed.

Failure to hold a valid certificate, provide a copy to your residents and to your agent generates a legal risk, not least, you may not be able to evict your resident. Given this we usually automatically get this work done on your behalf to avoid any problem.

Helpful website:

Oil Fired boiler

There is no legal requirement for an Owner to obtain a safety certificate for oil fired equipment installed within a let property. However, BS 5410: Part 1 requires oil fired appliances and equipment to be serviced periodically in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Therefore if this does not happen and there is a problem then you would have little defence.

Given this you should have an annual safety check and boiler service by an OFTEC Registered Engineer.

Helpful websites:


Electrical Installation Condition Report (EICR)

This reports the condition of the circuits in the property, i.e. the wires and sockets in the walls, the ‘fuse board’ etc., to ensure everything meets the requirements of BS7671 – in essence, it is safe to use. Completed reports are registered centrally, along with any faults identified. Before any property is sold the buyer usually expects a current EICR.

Since 1 April 2021 all domestic rental properties require an EICR completed within the last 5 years.

The EICR will give details of the works which are immediate legal obligations, plus the suggested works to meet the highest standards of safety. Any obligatory issues identified must be properly addressed and any subsequent significant electrical installations carried out by a qualified electrician, who would provide an appropriate certificate as an addition to any EICR.

Failure to provide a current EICR or act on any obligatory works identified can lead to a fine of up to £30,000.

Additionally where there are changes of tenants between EICRs there should be a visual check for obvious problems (broken sockets and light fittings), which we complete if we manage your property.

You must ensure a copy is issued to each existing resident within 28 days of the check being completed and a copy is issued to any new residents before they move in. We advise keeping all certificates for the length of the tenancy, in case eviction is needed.

We have a dedicated page for EICRs

Helpful website: http://www.electricalsafetyfirst.org.uk/guides-and-advice/for-landlords/

Portable Appliance Testing (PAT Testing)

Any appliance with an electrical plug is considered ‘portable’ (even a fridge). A PAT tests the electrical integrity of any appliance to ensure it is safe to use. It should include a visual check of the cable and plug. Once tested a label is put on the plug or appliance to show when it was tested. The Regulations do not specify what needs to be done, by whom or how frequently. There are different suggested frequencies for different appliances essentially based on risk. Appliances used by more people and appliances which use more energy (usually those generating heat) tend to need more frequent testing. As the appliances an Owners usually provides to a property will be fridges/washing machines etc. it is good practice to test appliances no less than every 2 years.

Helpful website: http://www.hse.gov.uk/electricity/faq-portable-appliance-testing.htm


Water Safety – Legionella

Domestic water systems in rental properties need to be checked to minimise the chance the system encourages the growth of harmful organisms, particularly Legionella. There is no legal mandate about how this should be done, as there is with annual gas safety certificates. There are also some who believe this work is not needed and that people can do it themselves.

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) produced a clear code of practice in November 2013. Any Owner failing to follow this code would have little defence against any claim or prosecution. The HSE code makes it very clear that Owners need to:

  • Ensure there is a risk assessment which;
    • is completed by a ‘competent’ person – given the range of issues to consider we have concluded that the only way to meet the ‘competence’ requirement is for properly trained people to do the risk assessment.
    • provides a clear record of the assessment & details of the water system
    • provides details of any risks
    • recommends steps required to address the risks
  • If the risk assessment shows work is required, this needs to be addressed. The timescale will depend on the scale of the risk.
  • If the assessment shows there may be an issue then the water may need laboratory testing for the presence of Legionella bacteria. This is very rare in domestic properties.
  • Review the risk assessment regularly (currently assessed to be every 2 years).
  • Ensure the water system is regularly maintained. This includes Owners being responsible for ensuring the system is free from limescale.

A key issue is whether there are water storage tanks on the property, as this is usually flagged as a potential risk area. Therefore it is often more cost effective to have the tanks cleaned and treated when the risk assessment is completed, as this avoids a return visit.

It is important to note that letting agents have an obligation to ensure Owners can show their water systems are safe where they manage your property.

Helpful website: http://www.hse.gov.uk/legionnaires/what-you-must-do.htm

Fire and Fumes

Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Alarms

From 1 October 2015 Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Alarm (England) Regulations 2015 require smoke and carbon monoxide alarms to be fitted in residential rental properties. These were Amended in 2022. The revised Regulations say:

  • A smoke alarm must be provided on each storey of the premises on which there is a room used wholly or partly as living accommodation
  • A carbon monoxide alarm must be provided in any room of the premises which is used wholly or partly as living accommodation and contains a fixed combustion or solid fuel burning appliance (excluding gas hobs)
  • Alarms need to be checked and in proper working order at the start of each tenancy. The only guidance about the type of alarms is in the explanatory booklet supporting the Regulations We have set out below information to help you make this decision.

Helpful websites:

Smoke Alarms

Many local councils have their own best practice guidelines for landlords, all of which tend to be similar. These have usually been set in conjunction with the local fire and rescue service. The Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue service website says the best protection is to have alarms in every room, to have mains powered, interlinked alarms, and to mix both ionisation and optical alarms.
Most of our landlords of normal family homes with related occupants fit, as a minimum, smoke alarms meeting British Standard 5446 Part 1, showing a British or European approval mark, such as a Kitemark. When asked to fit alarms the minimum we fit is 5 year warranty battery powered ionisation smoke alarms. We want the test button to test the ability to detect smoke as well as the battery power and sounder. Otherwise you will need to smoke test the alarm to prove it works at the beginning of the tenancy. However if you have a house with a number of unrelated occupants renting rooms this is moving toward or may meet the definition of a House in Multiple Occupancy (HMO), so you would be expected to have greater protection than supplied to a small house with a single family. In this case we recommend following local HMO guidelines to ensure you can be seen to follow best practice. This is likely to mean mains powered interlinked alarms, possibly linked to a central station.

Carbon Monoxide Alarms

The 2015 Regulations limit the alarms to rooms with solid fuel appliances. The guidance notes say encourage reputable landlords to ensure that working carbon monoxide alarms are installed wherever fuel is burnt, which matches the advice of all agencies (HSE, NHS, local councils, fire service). Alarms should meet British Standard EN 50291, showing a British or European approval mark, such as a Kitemark. When asked to fit alarms the minimum we fit is 10 year warranty battery powered audible carbon monoxide alarms. It is important that the test button tests the ability to detect carbon monoxide as well as the battery power and sounder. Otherwise you will need to gas test the alarm to prove it works at the beginning of the tenancy. It is possible to get combined smoke and carbon monoxide alarms. Most alarms are also available with either replaceable batteries or sealed a guaranteed 10 year life. Whilst the latter are more expensive they need less maintenance.

The Government is currently reviewing whether to make it compulsory to fit Carbon Monoxide alarms wherever fuel is burnt.

Helpful websites:

Furniture and Furnishings

Landlords must make sure that all furniture is fire resistant and complies with current Regulations. Even items stored in a shed, garage or cordoned-off section of the loft must still adhere to the Regulations. Also any items sold to the tenant will have to comply. This applies to any soft furnishing (sofas, their covers, cushions) as well as the furniture, including garden furniture that can be used indoors. It does not apply to curtains.

Helpful website: http://www.firesafe.org.uk/furniture-and-furnishings-fire-safety-regulations-19881989-and-1993/

Open fires and wood burners

Any fuel burning appliance installed after October 2010 must comply with appropriate Building Regulations. This means that any such appliance must either have been installed by a HETAS approved engineer, who would provide a compliance certificate, or specific Building Regulation consent should have been obtained. Thereafter the chimney will need regular sweeping. We recommend this is done using a HETAS approved contractor, who will provide a certificate to show they have checked the safety of the device and chimney. We advise landlords should have chimneys swept at the start of each tenancy (but not more frequently than annually). Thereafter where tenants use the chimney we expect them to sweep the chimney regularly.

Helpful website: http://www.mastersweeps.co.uk/ChimneySweepi.html

Fire escapes

All landlords must follow fire safety regulations. For individual, single family homes that means ensuring tenants have access to escape routes at all times. Therefore if there is only one door to the property it is important to ensure the windows can be opened, as they would be the escape route if needed.

Where your property is in a block of flats the block should have been built with safe escape routes protected by fire-resisting walls and fire doors, which help to give all occupants time to exit their homes to safety. You will need to make sure that these exit routes are kept clear by whoever manages the exit areas for the block. You should also check that a fire risk assessment has been completed for the block.

Where your property is a House of Multiple Occupancy (HMO) there are extra legal obligations to provide a safe means of escape. These will alter dependent upon each building.

Helpful website: https://www.rla.org.uk/docs/LACORSFSguideApril62009.PDF

Condensation and Mould

Housing Health and Safety Rating System (HHSRS) Housing Act 2004 – Homes (Fitness for Human Habitation) Act 2018

The Local Authority has responsibility for the Housing Health and Safety Rating System (HHSRS) which categorises any problems. In extreme ‘category 1’ cases the Authority can say the property is not fit for human habitation, meaning it can’t be rented until the issues are corrected. These would be issues such as damp and mould growth; excess cold or heat; asbestos; carbon monoxide etc.. Therefore Owners must make sure their property is safe and maintenance completed when required.

This has become increasingly in focus following the terrible Awaab Ishak case, where a 2 year old boy died in 2020 as a result of mould in his home. After this the Government were clear the HHSRS rules were in place to prevent this issue, so the rules should have been enforced. As a result this is becoming an increased focus of local authorities and the Government is developing a “Awaabs Law”, to address any issues.

One of the key aspects is a property should have “sufficient and appropriate means of ventilation to deal with moisture generated by normal domestic activities without the need to open windows”. This challenges standard advice used for many years to residents with condensation and mould that they should open the window.

Where there is a report of mould we will do an assessment of the property to ensure all reasonable ventilation and extraction is in place, plus there are no faults within the building which may cause the issue. We will also arrange an external damp survey if one has not been done. This should demonstrate you have taken all reasonable steps to provide a safe home. Obviously we will also refer the resident to our Condensation and Mould page, so they can follow the advice.

Helpful website: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/housing-health-and-safety-rating-system-guidance-for-landlords-and-property-related-professionals


Blinds and window coverings

The British Standards Institution published standards in February 2014 based upon the European Standards on safety requirements to address certain risks posed to children by internal blinds and corded window coverings.

If a blind or curtain track is purchased new then it should contain a label regarding safety and compliance with the Standard together with a safety device installed to prevent strangulation of a young child by a dangerous loop made of cord material or ball bearings. Usually this is a cleat or channel to prevent the cord hanging loose.

Existing properties where blinds or tracks with cords are already fitted should be checked and if there is a long or loose loop arrange the fitting of a cleat or snap connector.

Helpful website: http://shop.bsigroup.com/ProductDetail/?pid=000000000030261213


The costs of the contractors completing the checks are deducted from your rent when the work is done.
We also have a Landlord Compliance Checklist for you to assess what maybe needed in your property.